TNO’s Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) methodology

Including safety, security and resilience in the design of a multi-functional urban complex is a challenge and requires a lot of decisions at many different levels. Such an urban complex needs to provide a secure and safe space for its occupants and minimize its vulnerability against natural and man-made hazards. From the early design process on already, it is important to make reliable choices to accomplish a safe, secure and resilient building with both desired architectural quality and functional fulfillments. 

For this decision making process, TNO with the support of the ELASSTIC-team has developed a holistic design process based on a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) approach, consisting of the following special features:

  • A design checklist has been generated and implemented in Relatics by Arcadis. Relatics is a system engineering program.
  • An MCA software tool has been generated that supports both the initial process of defining and identifying the wishes, the requirements and the priorities of stakeholders, as well as the process of evaluating the design and visualizing the results of the MCA-analysis.
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) have been defined, that can be used to quantify the performance of a building related to hazards. The three top level criteria identified are the safety of the people, the business continuity and the no intrusion level.
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for other criteria, crucial to decide on an optimum solution, have been defined as well. It concerns matters which have influencing, if not conflicting, needs with the safety, security and resilience criteria. They were Architectural Quality, Environmental Impact and Functionality criteria.
  • A methodology has been developed to generate the performance scoring for the criteria. Results from engineering calculations can be translated into scores for the more general KPIs. This methodology is now ready for any high-level decision aspect to translate into a KPI that can be quantitatively assessed and included in the decision process.
  • Impact of safety, security and resilience measures on other design requirements have been identified. And this is used to identify generic KPIs playing role in any urban complexes.
  • The MCA-tool can be linked to BIM, i.e. output of the analysis with the MCA can be registered and visualized in the 3D BIM-model.

The tool and the criteria have been already used to evaluate the two design versions of the ELASSTIC complex. In order to make use of the full-benefit of both the methodology and the tool, safety and security engineers need to be part of the design team.

Figure 1: The criteria of the MCA-methodology developed

Figure 2: Visualization of the MCA-result for the ELASSTIC building complex in the MCA-tool


ELASSTIC Project Finalized
Final ELASSTIC Workshop


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 312632 

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